Theories aggression essays

The theory of Intergenerational Transmission which borrows ideas from Social Learning Theory, involves the relationship between parental violence and subsequent child violence during adulthood. This theory, however, is criticized by many researchers due to the theory's implication of blame, especially on the woman. There are a number of theories that attempt to explain domestic Domestic violence been an ongoing problem that the family faces. Few people deny the fact that something needs to be done to deal with violence in the family because it often leads to future problems for members of the family.

There are many different theories on what the root of family violence is and depending on which perspective is taken will determine what measures are needed to be done to solve the problem. Family violence is seen to forms: partner violence and child abuse. Strets and Strauss theorized that lower commitment leads to more violence and this theory was uph The first theory to explain children delinquency is psychodynamic theory Freud, Second reason is family violence.

Violence is not about heredity, violence is learned behavior and it is often learned from parents and family members American Psychological Association, According to psychological aspect of children crime, there are two main theory to explain this which are psychodynamic theory and five factor model theory. Furthermore, in the light of previous researches, family based problems such as mother-child attachment and parental violence are strongly related Newspapers reported acts of family violence which kill or maime.

Few have a real understanding of what constitutes family violence, what causes family violence, and what society needs to do to help solve this social problem. Family violence has been traditionally viewed as a social or family problem. The social learning theory contends that children learn violence in their family. The proposition that people hit family members because they can is based on the principles of social exchange theory, which assumes that human interaction is guided by the pursuit of rewards and t Nearly million women are physically abused by a family member, resulting in 1 woman beaten every 7 seconds in the United States Statistics on Domestic Violence.

Domestic violence is a widespread problem and effects every type of person. Many problems are a direct result of family violence. It will teach them what they should do if ever involved in a violent situation, and also the effects family violence co Type a new keyword s and press Enter to search. Theories on Domestic Violence.

Domestic Violence: Theory, Ef. History of the Legal Respnse to Domestic Violence. The Definition of Family. Family Violence. Triggers of Juvenile Crime and Delinquency.

Aggression vs. Altruism: Crash Course Psychology #40

In a laboratory setting, participants from both groups were then randomly assigned to receive either a drug that raises serotonin levels or a placebo. Then the participants completed a competitive task with what they thought was another person in another room.


During the task, the person who won each trial could punish the loser of the trial by administering electric shocks to the finger. As you can see in Figure 9. The aggressive participants who had been given serotonin, however, showed significantly reduced aggression levels during the game. Participants who reported having engaged in a lot of aggressive behaviors right panel showed more aggressive responses in a competitive game than did those who reported being less aggressive left panel. The aggression levels for the more aggressive participants increased over the course of the experiment for those who did not take a dosage of serotonin but aggression did not significantly increase for those who had taken serotonin.

Data are from Berman et al. Perhaps unsurprisingly, research has found that the consumption of alcohol increases aggression. Alcohol increases aggression for a couple of reasons. Executive functioning occurs in the prefrontal cortex, which is the area that allows us to control aggression.

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Acute alcohol consumption is more likely to facilitate aggression in people with low, rather than high, executive functioning abilities. Second, when people are intoxicated, they become more self-focused and less aware of the social situation, a state that is known as alcohol myopia. As a result, they are less likely to notice the social constraints that normally prevent them from engaging aggressively and are less likely to use those social constraints to guide them.

We might normally notice the presence of a police officer or other people around us, which would remind us that being aggressive is not appropriate, but when we are drunk we are less likely to be so aware. The narrowing of attention that occurs when we are intoxicated also prevents us from being aware of the negative outcomes of our aggression.

Alcohol also influences aggression through expectations. If we expect that alcohol will make us more aggressive, then we tend to become more aggressive when we drink. And you would be right—we are much more likely to aggress when we are experiencing negative emotions. Frustration occurs when we feel that we are not obtaining the important goals that we have set for ourselves.

We get frustrated when our computer crashes while we are writing an important paper, when we feel that our social relationships are not going well, or when our schoolwork is going poorly. How frustrated we feel is also determined in large part through social comparison. If we can make downward comparisons with important others, in which we see ourselves as doing as well or better than they are, then we are less likely to feel frustrated. But when we are forced to make upward comparisons with others, we may feel frustration. When we receive a poorer grade than our classmates received or when we are paid less than our coworkers, this can be frustrating to us.

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In fact, anything that leads to discomfort or negative emotions can increase aggression. Consider pain, for instance. As another example, working in extremely high temperatures is also known to increase aggression—when we are hot, we are more aggressive. The students in the latter condition expressed significantly more hostility. Hotter temperatures are associated with higher levels of aggression Figure 9. McGregor et al. The participants in the study had been selected, on the basis of prior reporting, to have either politically liberal or politically conservative views.

When they arrived at the lab they were asked to write a short paragraph describing their opinion of national politics. Then the participants read an essay that had supposedly just been written by another person in the study. The essay that the participants read had been prepared by the experimenters to condemn politically liberal views or to condemn politically conservative views.

Thus one-half of the participants were provoked by the other person by reading a statement that strongly conflicted with their own political beliefs, whereas the other half read an essay that supported their beliefs liberal or conservative. At this point, the participants moved on to what they thought was a completely separate study in which they were to be tasting and giving their impression of some foods.

Furthermore, they were told that it was necessary for the participants in the research study to administer the food samples to each other. The participants then found out that the food they were going to be sampling was spicy hot sauce and that they were going to be administering the sauce to the same person whose essay they had just read!

In addition, the participants read some information about the other person that indicated that the other person very much disliked eating spicy food. Participants were given a taste of the hot sauce which was very hot and then instructed to place a quantity of it into a cup for the other person to sample.

Furthermore, they were told that the other person had to eat all the sauce. The threatening essay had little effect on the participants in the exam control condition. On the other hand, the participants who were both provoked by the other person and who had also been reminded of their own death administered significantly more aggression than did the participants in the other three conditions. Data are from McGregor et al. Just as negative feelings can increase aggression, positive affect can reduce it. Then the participants were, according to random assignment, shown either funny cartoons or neutral pictures.

When the participants were given an opportunity to retaliate by giving shocks as part of an experiment on learning, those who had seen the positive cartoons gave fewer shocks than those who had seen the neutral pictures. It seems that feeling good about ourselves, or feeling good about others, is incompatible with anger and aggression.

This makes perfect sense, of course, since emotions are signals regarding the threat level around us. When we feel good, we feel safe and do not think that we need to aggress. Of course, negative emotions do not always lead to aggression toward the source of our frustration. Displaced aggression occurs when negative emotions caused by one person trigger aggression toward a different person.

Frustration-Aggression Theory and Family Violence

It is clear that negative affect increases aggression. And you will recall that emotions that are accompanied by high arousal are more intense than those that have only low levels of arousal. Thus it would be expected that aggression is more likely to occur when we are more highly aroused, and indeed this is the case.

Arousal probably has its effects on aggression in part through the misattribution of emotion.

PSYA3 Aggression: Constructively criticise my essays please - The Student Room

If we are experiencing arousal that was actually caused by a loud noise or by any other cause, we might misattribute that arousal as anger toward someone who has recently frustrated or provoked us. We have seen that when we are experiencing strong negative emotions accompanied by arousal, such as when we are frustrated, angry, or uncomfortable, or anxious about our own death, we may be more likely to aggress. However, if we are aware that we are feeling these negative emotions, we might try to find a solution to prevent ourselves from lashing out at others.

Perhaps, we might think, if we can release our negative emotions in a relatively harmless way, then the probability that we will aggress might decrease. Maybe you have tried this method. Have you ever tried to yell really loud, hit a pillow, or kick something when you are angry, with the hopes that doing so will release your aggressive tendencies? The idea that engaging in less harmful aggressive actions will reduce the tendency to aggress later in a more harmful way , known as catharsis , is an old one.

It was mentioned as a way of decreasing violence by the Greek philosopher Aristotle and was an important part of the theories of Sigmund Freud. Many others believe in catharsis too.