Gcse chemistry coursework

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Titrations Introduction: In this experiment we are going to be testing to see which antacid tablet works the best in helping us get rid of stomache aches. From our preliminary experiment, the results we got told us that Rennie was the best antacid tablet with the most accurate results and was also the best tablet in strength. Neautralisation basically occurs when the right amounts of acid and alkaki react.

Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out which antacid tablet works the best in removing stomache aches the quickest. Key Factors: In To make our method more accurate we could test each tablet on people who have stomache aches and see which one is more effective. We could also test the pH of a stomache and see which tablet would be most suitable. Another improvement to our experiment would be to get slices of the stomache and let it grow to see what happens and then test the tablets.

Again a good thing to compare it to is people walking down the street, either quickly or slowly. This is because by this time there is a lot of heat, which gives the particles of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid more energy, so they move around more quickly than before. Obviously, at a higher velocity the particles are going to be more likely to collide. Chemical reactions require collisions, and if the particles are more likely to collide then the reaction will occur faster.

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By these temperatures the reaction rate will have decreased dramatically. This is because the particles will, by now, have a lot of energy from the heat, therefore moving around more, therefore colliding more - for the reaction to occur.

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I say this because the temperature is more or less high enough to boil water, and so the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid particles will be moving around extremely fast. There will be a LOT of collisions between the two sets of particles, causing a chemical reaction to occur.

So, to summarise, at a cold temperature the reaction will take more time to happen. This is because the particles of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid will not be moving around so quickly, meaning they are less likely to collide, therefore the reaction will take place in more time.

Chemical reactions require a collision at a certain velocity, and if this velocity is not reached then the reaction will just not happen. As the temperature increases, the reaction rate will be lower.

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This sis because with more heat, the particles have more energy, meaning they move around more. Collisions will be more likely to happen at a higher speed. GRAPH Conclusion I conclude that the temperature does affect rate of reaction - the higher the temperature the lower the rate of reaction. I can also see this from my graph.

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At the lower temperatures the line of best fit goes very high, and at the higher temperatures the line of best fit is very low. This is because with more heat, the particles of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid have more energy. This causes them to move around more. Chemical reactions require collisions, and if two sets of particles are moving around quickly there will naturally be more collisions.

However, the collisions require the particles to hit each other at a certain velocity, and if this velocity if not reached then the reaction will just not happen. So, at the higher temperatures, more of the particles were travelling at a high enough speed to collide and react. At the lower temperatures it was more difficult for the particles to collide. Only some were able to reach the required speed and react. The particle theory says that for a chemical reaction to occur, there must be a collision at a certain velocity and at a certain angle.

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  6. Also, the factors that affect the rate of a reaction are the surface area of the solid reactant if there is a solid reactant , the concentration of the aqueous reactant s , the presence of catalysts and temperature. In this experiment we were concentrating on temperature, and we were able to draw the conclusion that temperature does, in fact, affect the rate of a reaction, in that when the temperature is higher the reaction takes less time. This was because there was not very much heat.

    Heat provides energy to the particles of reactants, and if there is not very much heat, the particles do not have very much energy. Because they do not have much energy they will not move around much, and will therefore not collide very often. Chemical reactions require a certain speed collision to react, and at this temperature very few of the particles collided, because of not moving around more due to lack of energy, because the heat was not very great.

    I can tell this from my graph, as the line of best fit goes down very steeply. This is because the heat has given the particles a little kick-start of energy, and they were able to move around a lot more than previously. The particles then collided more and reacted together. This is because it is reaching the boiling point of water, and so the water in the solutions as sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid are aqueous solutions starts to boil and turns to steam. This is why the decrease of reaction rate slows - it got increasingly difficult for the solution to get hotter.

    My results and evidence support my prediction very well. They prove the fact that temperature does affect the rate of reaction. I also have the particle theory to support my prediction and conclusion.

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    So I did make a good prediction, including as much as I could say without any evidence from an experiment. Evaluation The procedure used wasn't that suitable, in my opinion. We had groups of people, each doing the experiment for one temperature range. We can't possibly have all done the experiment in the same way, and this would mean some unreliable results. To improve the suitability of the procedure it would have to be done by the same person all the way through, using the same stopwatch. We would also have to take a lot more time over measuring out the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, so this would be more accurate.

    Also, as the temperature got higher, the results were closer together, and as we had to round the time in seconds to an integer they became less accurate. If we rounded the time more accurately e. Another reason for the higher temperatures being very close together is that the water in the solutions was starting to boil, and therefore change state.

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    If we increased the concentration of the Na2S2O3 and the HCl then our results would be slightly more accurate, because sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid have higher boiling points and so the higher temperatures would not be so close. We would then be able to tell more easily how temperature affects reaction rate. Another way of making our results more accurate would be to take multiple readings and then an average time from these.

    We didn't do this in our experiment because we did not have the time - had we the time we would have made sure we did this to make the results as accurate as possible. Because we didn't, our results were not nearly as accurate as we would have liked. You cannot really judge from 1 lot of results, because it's possible that something went wrong, or you timed incorrectly. It is quite difficult to judge properly the exact moment that the cross disappears - the human eye is just not strong enough. It is even more difficult for the higher temperatures as you would have to have an extremely good reaction time to stop the stopwatch exactly when the cross changes.

    However, our results were consistent even though we did not take multiple results, because we only had one anomaly. Concerning the amount of time taken for the cross to disappear, we could use a different method of working out how long the reaction took to occur.